After the Debacle of Non-Cooperation Movement in 1922, two groups of leaders got evolved, they were:
a. No changers: No changers were Ansari, Rajagopalachari, Rajendra Prasad, Vallabh Bhai Patel, and others. They advocated continuing Gandhian constructive rural work.
b. Pro changers: Pro changers were Motilal Nehru, CR Das, etc., – They demanded Congress participation in council politics.
1927- Simon Commission: The Commission got created to recommend further constitutional reforms. The commission then headed by Sir John Simon, and it consisted of all-white members. When Simon came to Indian, he was greeted with black flags as a mark of protest by the Indians with raised slogans stating Simon Go Back.
1928-Nehru Report: It demanded a responsible government and advocated dominion states. It was not for complete independence. It demanded universal suffrage. It rejected separated communal elections.
1929- Irwin Offer: It proposed a vague offer of dominion status for India in an unspecified future period and a Round Table Conference to discuss a future constitution after the publication of the Simon Report.
1929- Lahore Session of Congress: The president of this session was Jawahar Lal Nehru. It decided to boycott Round Table Conference. Purna Swaraj got adopted as the main aim of the Congress under the presidentship of J.L.Nehru.
On Dec 31st, 1929, Tricolor was hoisted at the Shore of Ravi.
1930- Civil Disobedience Movement started with the Dandi march on March 12th, 1930- to break the salt law under the leadership of Gandhi
January 26th,1930- was observed as Independence day all over the country.
1930- First Round Table Conference: It was the first-ever conference that made British and Indians equal. Congress boycotted it. However, Motilal Nehru, Liberals, and princes attended it.
1931- Second Round Table Conference: Gandhi attended only one round table conference, and that is the second round table conference.
1931- Gandhi-Irwin pact: It offered the release of all the political prisoners, except Bhagat Singh, Rajguru, and Sukhdev. The right to make salt got accepted. Gandhi agreed to suspend the Civil Disobedience Movement and participate in the second session of the Round Table Conference.
1932- Third Round Table Conference: The majority of the leaders of INC did not participate. The result of the conference got published in a White paper based on which the British government passed the Government of India Act of 1935.
1932-Ramsay MacDonald proposed a separate electorate for minority communities, including Dalits. The proposal got the support of B.R.Ambedkar, but Gandhi opposed it.
1932- Poona pact- Gandhi felt that a separate electorate would disintegrate the society on caste lines and may lead to the permanent division of the society. To avoid such a scenario, Gandhi went on for hunger strike for 21 days in Yerawada central jail. This issue got finally resolved between B.R.Ambedkar and Gandhi by signing the historic Poona pact.
Gandhi devoted himself to the Harijan Cause. He even started a newspaper called Harijan.
Resumption of Civil Disobedience Movement and Withdrawl: Gandhi restarted CDM on December 29th, 1931, when all efforts of convincing Britishers for some administrative concessions failed during the second round conference. Gandhi advised suspending the CDM in 1933.
1935- The government of India act 1935 prescribed provincial autonomy, and the government announced elections to the provincial legislatures in 1937. Congress formed a government in 6 out of 11 provinces.
The 1937 provincial elections seemed to have convinced the Muslim League that Muslims were a minority and they have to play second fiddle in any democratic structure. It felt that Muslims might even go unrepresented.
1930 – Congress failed to mobilize the Muslim masses and allowed the League to widen its social support.
In 1940- Muslim League moved a resolution demanding Independent states for Muslims in the North-western and eastern areas of the country.
In the late 1930s, the Muslim League began viewing the Muslims as a separate nation from the Hindus.
1940- August offer: The British wanted Indian’s support during the second war world and wanted more Indians in the war advisory council. Hence they promised to give dominion status to India after the war. Congress and Muslim League rejected the proposal and demanded complete independence.
1942-Cripps missions-The British government wanted India to fully corporate with it during Second World War and made few proposals to League and Congress and promised them independence after the war. But the proposals were rejected by both parties, and hence the Cripps mission was a failure.
1942- Gandhi called for the Quit India movement – DO or DIE to fight the British. Communication and the symbols of the state authority got attacked all over the country.
1945- At the end of the Second World War, the British opened negotiations between Congress and the League and themselves to discuss the independence of British India. But the talks failed.
1945- Wavell plan- The plan suggested that all the portfolios except the Defence have to be held by the Indian members. It also suggested the reconstitution of the Viceroy’s Executive Council, and the political parties have to nominate few candidates from their party out of whom the Viceroy would select the candidate of his choice for the Executive Council.
1945- Shimla conference: The conference was to discuss these proposals, and for a better future in India, Wavell called all the political parties for their opinion to Shimla, and this conference popularly called as Shimla conference. Differences arose between the Congress and the League about the representation of the Muslim community. This conference was a failure.
1946- Elections got held. Congress did well in general constituencies but, League did exceptionally well in the seats reserved for Muslims.
1946- Cabinet Mission: The mission consisted of Lord Patrick-Lawrence, the Secretary of State for India, Sir Stafford Cripps, President of the Board of Trade, and A.V. Alexander, the First Lord of the Admiralty. The mission had suggested that India should remain united and constitute itself as a loose federation. It shall give some autonomy for the Muslim majority areas. Both Congress and League did not agree to specific details of the proposal.
1946- Muslim League decided on a mass agitation for winning its demand for Pakistan.
1946- Direct Action Day- Muslim League announced August 16th, 1946 as Direct action day. On this day, riots broke in Calcutta and lasted for several days. By March 1947, violence spread to different parts of northern India.
Indian Independence Act 1947: It was the act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom. It received royal assent on July 18th, 1947. According to this act, British India to be divided into two states- namely India and Pakistan.