- The group of four democracies –India, Australia, the United States, and Japan, is called the Quadrilateral or Quadrilateral Security Dialogue.
- It was proposed for the first time by Japanese Prime Minister Shinzo Abe in 2007 and recently restarted. An anti-China alliance because all four members have extensive economic ties with the country.
- Everyone is committed to constructively participating rather than curbing the policies of this emerging East Asian power.
- Therefore, Quad can be seen as an alliance of maritime democracies, aiming to reinforce each other based on their common values and interests.
- However, its formation indirectly isolated China as an undemocratic country and weakened its diplomatic position in international gatherings.
- Four countries have joined Singapore as part of the Malabar exercise, which was originally a bilateral naval exercise between the United States. And India, in 2007. Later, Japan participated in and became a permanent member of the Malabar exercise.
Some of the main recommendations of the report:
- The policy recommendations of the Quartet Conference include recommendations on diplomacy, security, economy, environment, and humanitarian security.
- Australia, India, Japan, and the United States should cooperate to support the free and open Indo-Pacific region that recognizes the center and the growing importance of the Indian Ocean.
- Quad should work with other partners to oppose the establishment of a permanent Chinese military base in the Indian Ocean region.
- Quad should work with countries in the Indian Ocean region to help them maintain independent economic and security policies by supporting high-quality alternatives to Chinas unilateral investment and political coordination with Chinas regional goals.
- At the same time to prevent unilateral military roles, China, Australia, India, Japan, and the United States should allow China to participate in diplomatic efforts to ensure the safety of navigation on critical energy routes, including those in the Persian Gulf.
- The United States should consider joining the Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank to form a pair Set high standards for projects involving China and strengthen economic cooperation with other countries, including Australia and India.
- The Quartet should jointly encourage user countries and coastal countries to formulate corresponding policies to provide technical assistance for the blue economy and green development.
- Quad should cooperate with other parties to further support the maritime law enforcement capacity building of the countries along the Indian Ocean.
- To build a strong four-way maritime defense capability in the Indian Ocean, India and the United States should invite Australia to participate in the Malabar naval exercise.
- The four countries should also consider inviting other countries with common maritime interests to join the cooperative.
Concerns/Challenges of QUAD
- The emergence of new players such as the United States and Japan will only intensify multi-regional competition in the region.
- Although the quadrilateral grouping will bring development projects, it will greatly weaken India’s dominance in the surrounding areas.
- India prevents China’s demand for the diplomatic mission in Bhutan if the United States pursues the same goal, it will now be a challenge.
- India opposes the presence of the Chinese navy in Sri Lanka. Now India will not be able to oppose the presence of American naval ships and Japan there.
- Although India pursues the aspirations of a global alliance, it has not fulfilled its regional commitments.
- New Delhi has changed its position in Hambantota many times and has many contradictions in handling Nepal’s political issues, the Maldives crisis, and the Myanmar Rohingya issue.
- Strategic analysts believe that India is getting involved in the competition between the United States and China.
- Development banks should focus on financing the region’s infrastructure to promote economic growth.
This may offset China’s large-scale infrastructure construction in Southeast Asia to Africa under the Belt and Road initiative. India and Japan are already discussing Asian-African issues. The growth corridor is a step in the right direction. Due to India’s presence and influence in South Asia, the priority of neighborhoods should not be downgraded.