There are Eleven Fundamental Duties and it shall be the duty of every citizen of India:
- To abide by the Constitution and respect its ideals and institutions, the National Flag and the National Anthem;
- To cherish and follow the noble ideals which inspired our national struggle for freedom;
- To uphold and protect the sovereignty, unity, and integrity of India;
- To defend the country and render national service when called upon to do so;
- To promote harmony and the spirit of common brotherhood amongst all the people of India transcending religious, linguistic, and regional or sectional diversities; to renounce practices derogatory to the dignity of women;
- To value and preserve the rich heritage of our composite culture;
- To protect and improve the natural environment including forests, lakes, rivers, and wildlife, and to have compassion for living creatures;
- To develop the scientific temper, humanism, and the spirit of inquiry and reform;
- To safeguard public property and to abjure violence;
- To strive towards excellence in all spheres of individual and collective activity, so that the nation constantly rises to higher levels of endeavor and achievement.”
- To provide opportunities for education by the parent or the guardian, to his child, or a ward between the age of 6-14 years as the case may be. (Added by 86th amendment 2002)
- In the first place, the Constitution of India did not contain these duties.
- These are included in the Forty Second (42nd) Constitution Amendment Act, 1976 which has incorporated ten Fundamental Duties in Article 51(A) of the constitution of India.
- The Eighty-Six (86th) Constitution Amendment Act, 2002 has added one more Fundamental Duty in Article 51(A) in Part IVA of the constitution of India. – i.e. to provide opportunities for education by the parent or the guardian, to his child, or a ward between the age of 6-14 years as the case may be.
- There are presently 11 Fundamental Duties of the citizen of India.
- Fundamental Duties is based on the Japanese model.
- None of the major democracies in the world have Fundamental Duties
- The duties incorporated by Forty Second Constitution Amendment Act, 1976 in the constitution are statutory duties and shall be enforceable by law.