A glimpse by Classical Thinkers
The debate about whether sociology is endowed with value or objectivity is based on the assumption that the existence of one necessarily implies the absence of the other. The positivist approach assumes that social science is possible. Therefore, objective observation and analysis of social life are possible.
The objective point of view is not affected by the observer’s values, moral judgments, and ideology. It provides explanatory facts and frameworks that are not affected by the observer’s feelings and opinions. Many founders of sociology believe that sociology can and should not have values. Comte and Durkheim believe that it is possible to conduct scientific research on social facts in a value-neutral way.
Methodological dualism proposes that the knower and the known person can be separated. Therefore, social research can be objective and value-neutral. However, more and more sociologists believe that a valueless social science is impossible, pointing out that the sociologist’s choice of research topics, research fields, and hypothesis design depends on his or her conditions (education and family)).
Marx lived among the oppressed that is why he wrote Das Kapital. While Weber believed that bureaucracy runs counter to human freedom; therefore, he wrote about bureaucracy.
Marxists and feminists have shown that they value inequality. Guldner said that sociologists must have values and must be open to values so that others can decide for themselves how much values have influenced their research. In short, objectivity attempts to eliminate values, which is an arduous task that is difficult to accomplish when dealing with humans. But sociologists claim that these prejudices and subjectivity can be reduced through training.
Contemporary researchers pay due attention to objectivity but at the same time admit that trying to eliminate the impact of value from their research is futile.
For example, Anthony Giddens said that structure is largely seen as an objective and social action, as a deliberate or value-filled behavior, two aspects of the same coin and cannot exist independently.
Generally speaking, facts are regarded as certain things or things that happen or are right. According to one view, facts are based on empirical observations. In other words, the fact is a correct observation. According to the Oxford Concise Dictionary facts, are the facts of events, correct statements, empirical problems, the truth of the situation, and the conclusions of certain real observations or phenomena. Therefore, facts are true and are the actual elements of the event. According to Durkheim, social facts do exist- religion, customs, and beliefs.
Research that focuses on the subject and does not cause prejudice is called objective research. In objective research, objects are observed and described as they are, without exaggeration or reduction. In objective research, reasoning and intelligence are more important than beliefs.
Value The term value in sociology has no economic connotation. Courage is a generalized abstract behavioral principle expressed in social norms, and group members feel a strong commitment to it. Science means selflessness; scientific inquiry/investigation presents the facts as they are and, scientists have an ethical responsibility to provide discoveries without prejudice or prejudice. The bottom line is that science, especially sociology, must be worthless, and research must be objective and fair.